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High antibiotic resistance and mortality with Acinetobacter species in a tertiary hospital, Nepal

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M. Mahto, M. Chaudhary, A. Shah, K. L. Show, F. L. Moses,  A. G. Stewart


SETTING: Nepal Mediciti Hospital, Bhainsepati, Lalitpur, Nepal

OBJECTIVES: To determine antimicrobial resistance patterns, and the number and proportion of multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-) cases among all patients with Acinetobacter isolates between September 2018 and September 2019.

DESIGN: This was a hospital laboratory-based, cross-sectional study

RESULTS: Acinetobacter spp. (n = 364) were more common in respiratory (n = 172, 47.3%) and invasive samples such as blood, body fluids (n = 95, 26.1%). Sensitivity to AWaRe (Access, Watch and Reserve) Group antibiotics (tigecycline, polymyxin B, colistin) remained high. MDR (resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial agents) (n = 110, 30.2%) and XDR (MDR plus carbapenem) (n = 87, 23.9%) isolates were most common in the Watch Group of antibiotics and found in respectively 99 (31.0%) and 78 (24.5%) patients (n = 319). Infected patients were more likely to be aged >40 years (n = 196, 61.4%) or inpatients (n = 191, 59.9%); 76 (23.8%) patients had an unfavourable outcome, including death (n = 59, 18.5%).

CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of MDR and XDR isolates was found; nearly one patient in five died. Robust hospital infection prevention and control measures (particularly for respiratory and invasive procedures) and routine surveillance are needed to reduce infections and decrease the mortality rate. Tigecycline, polymyxin B and colistin should be cautiously used only in MDR and XDR cases.