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Author: The Union (2022)
The Union partnered with experts to highlight experiences using best practices for effective enforcement and implementation of tobacco control laws. View the webinar presentations to hear lessons learned from real-world case studies.
Author: Pan American Health Organization (2010 & 2019)
This two part case study presents the initial implementation process of tobacco-free environments in São Paulo, Brazil after The São Paulo Anti Tobacco Law was passed in 2009, and it's continued implementation 10 years later. Documents available in Portuguese.
Author: The Union (2022)
The Union’s Tobacco Control Department produced a new factsheet on Implementation and Enforcement and offers a deep dive into the topic, summarizing evidence, defining key terms, and providing practical guidance and evidence-based recommendations.
Author: The Union (2022)
The Union partnered with experts to highlight real world case studies on using innovative technology to support public monitoring of tobacco control laws. View the webinar presentations to learn about best practices and how these tools can improve implementation.
A toolkit to provide a roadmap for establishing multisectoral strategies, plans and programmes for tobacco control in line with WHO FCTC Article 5.1.
Decriminalizing Commercial Tobacco: Addressing Systemic Racism in the Enforcement of Commercial Tobacco Control
Author: US Public Health Consortium
A joint statement from a consortium of US public health organizations setting forth principles to help health departments, decisionmakers, advocates, and other stakeholders advance equitable enforcement practices related to the purchase, possession, sale, and distribution of all tobacco products.
Author: SEATCA (2020)
A report detailing Implementation of Article 8 in the ASEAN region, 2020.
Tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailers near schools in two cities of East India, Ranchi and Siliguri
Author: Pouranik et al. (2021)
This study assesses the number and density of tobacco vendors in the cities of Ranchi (Jharkhand) and Siliguri (West Bengal), and the number of retailers selling tobacco near schools. Both of these jurisdictions have passed local tobacco vendor licensing laws.
Author: San Francisco Tobacco-Free Project
This case study describes the San Francisco Tobacco Retail Density Policy, examines the key strategies and lessons learned in developing a retail density policy, and explores the early impact of the policy in the first year of implementation.
Author: Male et al (2022)
This analysis focuses on understanding difficulties in managing industry engagement across government ministries and in developing effective whole-of government accountability for tobacco control.
Author: Australian Government
This policy outlines the principles used to guide the Australian Government's decisions and actions in enforcing tobacco advertising, packaging and product laws.
Compliance with smoke-free policies at indoor and outdoor public places: an observational study in Pakistan
Author: Ahsan et al. (2022)
Study investigating smoke-free compliance across public places in Karachi, the most populous city in Pakistan.
Author: The Union (2021)
The Union is partnered with experts to highlight real world case studies on how the tobacco industry undermines tobacco control policy implementation and enforcement, with a focus on the retail environment. View the webinar presentations and learn about the strategies adopted to limit the impact of these tactics on the implementation of tobacco control policies.
Author: Hoe et al. (2021)
Observational study assessing compliance with Qingdao’s Tobacco Control Regulation and whether compliance differed by enforcement agency. The data was collected by Johns Hopkins Institute for Tobacco Control as part of The Union's Global Implementation Programme.
Author: Ahuja et al. (2018)
Implementation of tobacco control law by police personnel in India. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes.
Author: Anderson et al. (2020)
This study aims to describe and compare global trends in legislation and compliance of smokefree and TAPS policies between 2009 and 2019.
Author: Kuipers et al. (2021)
This paper aims to stimulate a discussion on the potential for tobacco retail licencing in Europe and examines the cases of Finland, Hungary, France, Italy and Spain.
Evaluating the impact and equity of a tobacco-free pharmacy law on retailer density in New York City neighbourhoods
Author: Giovenco et al. (2018)
This study models the reduction in tobacco retailer density following the ban to examine differences in the policy’s impact across neighbourhoods.
Author: Ian McLaughlin, Tobacco Control Legal Consortium (2010)
This report looks at retailer licensing to support enforcement, and for controlling the location and concentration of tobacco retailers and imposing additional restrictions on the sale and promotion of tobacco products.
Author: Counter Tobacco
This site is dedicated to countering tobacco at the point-of-sale and offers evidence-based descriptions of the problem, policy solutions, advocacy materials and news updates.
This report uses publicly available information on tobacco industry interference in 34 countries and their respective governments’ responses to these interferences to interpret key findings and rank the countries on several interference indicators.
Author: Baguio Health Service Office
City of Baguio, Philippines, smokefree website shares good practices from the city, provides a platform for reporting smokefree policy violations and contains a database of protocols and forms for enforcement actions.
Assessment Report on Implementation of West Pakistan Tobacco Vend Act in the Urban Areas of Islamabad
Author: Association for Better Pakistan (2019)
This report assesses the model and achievements of the implementation of The West Pakistan Tobacco Vend Act-1958 since 2015.
Author: The Union
This Guide provides steps and sample materials to assess compliance with health warning labels,
A “How-to” Guide for Observing the Internet, Sponsored Events, and Corporate Social Responsibility.
Author: ASH Australia
"Countering Tobacco Tactics" is a guide to help policymakers and tobacco control advocates identify, monitor, expose, challenge, and counter tobacco industry tactics in order to prevent industry interference in public health and health policy.
Author: The Union
The Union’s FCTC Article 5.3 Toolkit provides step-by-step guidance for governments on preventing tobacco industry interference and protecting tobacco control laws and policies.
Author: The Union
This guide promotes best practice for conducting studies of compliance with smoke-free laws, including the rationale for doing or not doing a study, the knowledge and resources needed, and how to design the study and effectively disseminate the results.
Author: Food and Drug Administration (US)
Report on the last five years of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products Office compliance and enforcement activities.
Author: NYC Health
This self-inspection checklist for food establishments by the NYC Bureau of Food Safety and Community Sanitation provides a checklist (on page 2, part 2) that covers compliance with various regulations, including smokefree, product regulation, and POS.
Author: American Cancer Society
This guide examines specific barriers to the enforcement of smokefree laws and regulations and offers proven advocacy strategies for overcoming these barriers.
Collection of example flyers and leaflets from tobacco control initiatives around the globe for different venues types, including restaurants, sports clubs, government buildings, tobacco retailers and more.
Author: Drope & Glantz (2003)
This article describes how the British Columbia Capital Regional District systematically organized an educational campaign, enacted and enforced a series of bylaws, exposed industry interference to successfully pass and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places.
Author: World Bank
This report analyzes how economic fear influences policymakers when contemplating tobacco control efforts. It also demonstrates the economic benefits of tobacco control policies and the responsibility of governments to reduce potential costs of tobacco control efforts.
Author: Thrasher et al. (2008)
This case study describes the impact of the sociocultural and political-economic context of Mexico on WHO-FCTC policy uptake. It examines advancing tobacco control policy through strategic, contextually-specific communication efforts and uses smokefree policy to illustrate barriers to compliance in the Mexican context.
Author: National Health Service, UK
This document is England's official guide on their 2007 smokefree law. It is directed towards managers responsible for complying with the smokefree law in workplaces and public places.
Author: Rahmayanti et al. (2019)
This study analyzes the perception of smokefree policy within a university community service program and finds that while many people are aware of smoking's harmful effects, they do not know about smokefree policies, highlighting the need for community education, effective communication, and engagement.
Assessment of EU Member State National Characteristics and Their Association with Smoking Prevalence
Author: Bogdanovica et al. (2011)
This study aims to assess public sector corruption and other national characteristics and it's potential association with higher smoking prevalence in EU member states.
Author: Levy et al. (2013)
This study aims to determine the number of smoking-attributable deaths were averted due to the implementation of MPOWER policies.
Author: Wynne et al. (2018)
Comprehensive literature review to provide evidence for effective enforcement strategies and suggest measures to improve policy compliance.
Seven years of progress in tobacco control: an evaluation of the effect of nations meeting the highest level MPOWER measures between 2007 and 2014
Author: Levy et al. (2018)
This study aims to evaluated the global progress of the six MPOWER measures and their impact across 88 countries that have adopted one or more measure from 2007 to 2014.
Author: Fry et al. (2016)
This study aims to assess vendor licensing compliance and scheme to explore variations in compliance among different retailer types and locations.
Author: Kennedy et al. (2017)
This study aims to evaluate the implementation of national TAPS law in kiosks across five Russian cities.
Author: Mendes et al. (2017)
The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceived enforcement of anti-smoking legislation on 4 Brazilian cities.
Outcomes for Implementation Research: Conceptual Distinctions, Measurement Challenges, and Research Agenda
Author: Proctor et al. (2010)
This paper proposes a general working taxonomic of eight implementation elements to measure implementation outcomes, advance implementation processes, and improve effectiveness of implementation strategies.
Author: New Zealand MoH
The aim of this evaluation is to identify outcomes related to the 2003 Smokefree Environments Amendment Act and assess how closely goals were met.
Author: Sebayang et al. (2019)
This policy evaluation reviews the outdoor tobacco advertisement ban in Banyuqangi District East Java, Indonesia.
Author: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project
This report reviews the global evidence on the impact of the WHO FCTC implementation of tobacco control legislation.
Author: Niskar et al. (2008)
This article assess indictors of smokefree policy implementation in the Unites States, New Zealand, and Israel to demonstrate successful compliance of smokefree policies.
Author: He et al. (2018)
This study evaluates the effect of point-of-sale display bans globally as of 2016.
Author: The Tobacco Law Project
This report evaluates the enforcement practices, and barriers of the Commercial Youth Access Enforcement efforts in Minnesota, USA, providing recommendation for future enforcement efforts.
Author: Vyas et al. (2021)
This research assesses compliance with San Francisco's 2018 flavored tobacco sales ban and concludes that retailer education prior to enforcement will result in higher compliance rates.
Author: Pimple et al. (2014)
This article uses a random sampling process to evaluate compliance with the COPTA legislation in India.
Author: Lal et al. (2011)
This article demonstrates how smokefree compliance can be assessed through simple and cost-effective survey tools and can be used to validate implementation and enforcement progress.
Author: Lin et al. (2019)
This study analyzes the predictors of adopting subnational smokefree laws since China ratified the WHO FCTC in 2005 and assess their alignment with article 8.
Author: US CDC
This report is the third in the CDC's publications on Evaluating Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs and provides an evaluation logic model and set out outcome indicators that address eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke.
Implementing smoke-free policies in low- and middle-income countries: A brief review and research agenda
Author: Byron et al. (2019)
A review and research agenda on the challenges of implementing smokefree policies in low- and middle-income countries, identifying five areas where progress is urgently needed.
Author: Mlinarić et al. (2019)
Study that analyzes existing smokefree evidence and translates it into recommendations to improve smokefree implementation in outdoor venues.
Author: Department of Health and Social Care, UK Government
An example of a national delivery and monitoring plan. Published in conjunction with the Tobacco Control Plan for England, it identifies lead agencies, milestones and metrics to measure success.
This booklet provides an overview of key smokefree enforcement issues and sources of more information- because the authors live in Bangladesh this booklet draws heavily on examples from that country, but most of the issues are universal and approaches should easily be adaptable.
Author: Washington University Center for Public Health Systems Science
Set of tools for program sustainability including a self assessment guide and a program framework guide.
Author: The Union
A tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. Includes a report of tobacco control sustainability assessments from 24 countries with the world’s highest tobacco burden.
Author: Global Smokefree Partnership
This toolkit from the Global Smokefree Partnership draws on the experience of jurisdictions that have successfully implemented strong smokefree laws, and captures some of the important lessons common to these efforts.
Examples of smokefree protocols to support the implementation of smokefree policies.
Author: Public Health Ontario
An example of a research synthesis to inform tobacco control policy and strategy. This report from Ontario, Canada, provides a comprehensive assessment of the tobacco control interventions that would have the greatest impact on reducing tobacco use and its associated burden in Ontario.
Author: Lee et al. (2012)
This article reviews published research on tobacco industry activities that interfere with tobacco control policies and encourage tobacco use in LMICs to more thoroughly understand industry practices and strategies in LMICs.
Author: University of California San Francisco
The University of California San Francisco database contains over 14 million archived documents on tobacco industry activities, including advertising, manufacturing, marketing, scientific research, and political activities. In particular, the database provides access to internal industry documents made public during United States v. Philip Morris USA Inc., et al. and other litigation cases.
Tobacco Control Industry Watch provides facts and figures, publications, and media updates for the South East Asian Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA). With a focus on Articles 5.3 and 13, guidelines, toolkits, and in-country statuses are also available to further the effective implementation of the WHO FCTC in ASEAN countries.
Author: Centre for Combating Tobacco
Tobacco Unmasked is the information portal of the Centre for Combating Tobacco in Sri Lanka. It provides information and profiles on tobacco companies, their employees, their allies, and other institutions linked with them. The portal also describes industry strategies and arguments against tobacco control efforts.
Author: The University of Bath
Tobacco Tactics investigates tobacco industry strategies and tactics for undermining tobacco control efforts and provides rigorously researched reports, profiles, and information on industry players, allies, and activities.
Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control
Author: Landman et al. (2002)
This article analyzes tobacco industry documents to determine why industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs were developed, how they were used to fight tobacco control policy and programming, and their lack of effect on youth smoking prevalence.
The ‘‘We Card’’ Program: Tobacco Industry ‘‘Youth Smoking Prevention’’ as Industry Self-Preservation
Author: Apollonio et al. (2008)
This article analyzes the tobacco industry self-regulation "We Card" program. It exposes "We Card" as ineffective and structured to improve the industry's public image and limit tobacco control policies and their enforcement.
Stopping Tobacco Organizations and Products (STOP) works to understand and expose the tobacco industry’s efforts to derail tobacco control and hook a new generation of users. STOP's Resources Archive arms and supports stakeholders with tools and resources to counter the industry, including the latest analyses, reports, and information on the industry’s tactics.
Author: Ulucaniar et al. (2016)
This article outlines a model that provides an evidence-based summary of corporate political strategies used by the tobacco industry. The model enables public health practitioners to anticipate these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry’s claims.
Author: The Observatory
This website offers detailed information and data on the tactics used by the tobacco industry in Brazil, the legislative measures Brazil is adopting to meet FCTC and WHO directives, and the people and organizations involved with the tobacco industry that lobby against tobacco control measures in Brazil. The website is available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
This report uses publicly available information on tobacco industry interference in 33 countries and their respective governments’ responses to these interferences to interpret key findings and rank the countries on several interference indicators.
Author: FIC Argentina
This report compiles case studies with the aim of exposing the tobacco industry's strategies for blocking tobacco control efforts and disseminates information on the counter efforts of four civil society organizations in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico.
Author: Gilmore et al. (2015)
This article explores the tobacco industry's practices in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), given the industry's growing interest, investment, and interference in these regions. It focuses on how exposing the industry's misconduct is necessary for both the implementation of the WHO FCTC and more 'endgame' solutions to the tobacco epidemic.
Author: Eriksen & Chaloupka (2007)
This article reviews and analyses the diffusion of clean indoor air laws and the economic and public health impacts of their implementation. While research sponsored by the tobacco industry has raised concerns regarding the economic impact of smoke-free laws, scientific evidence indicates that clean indoor air laws are low-cost, safe, and effective.
The Crooked Nine report outlines the tobacco industry's strategies, techniques, and tactics to undermine tobacco control using case studies from around the world. It is designed to help the tobacco control community predict the industry's actions and counter industry interference.
Author: The Africa Centre For Tobacco Industry Monitoring
The Africa Centre For Tobacco Industry Monitoring And Policy Research (ATIM) is an observatory that offers up-to-date information on activities and developments in the tobacco industry that could have an impact on tobacco control policies. ATIM provides industry monitoring across Africa, as recommended by the Guidelines for implementation of Article 5.3 of the WHO FCTC, evaluates the impact of tobacco control policy, and informs stakeholders within the tobacco control community of ongoing developments.
The African Tobacco Control Alliance (ATCA) is a Pan-African network of more than 120 civil society organizations that monitors and responds to industry interference and provides regional resources. This page provides case studies of African countries and organizations responding to tobacco industry interference.
Author: McDaniel et al. (2017)
This article is a case study ion Philip Morris' involvement in the cessation arena and an evaluation of how and why PM supports cessation programs. It illustrates a notable example of industry interference that undermines effective tobacco control.
Examples of tobacco control strategic plans to provide guidance for creating comprehensive implementation and enforcement agendas, yearly plans and public health goal setting.
This is a set of smokefree hospital strategic guides to equip those implementing smokefree policies with the tools for effective implementation and enforcement.
Author: VanDevanter et al. (2017)
Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to assess factors that may influence implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines in the Viet Nam public health care delivery system.